Library ill University pf.Alberta Library, ARCHIVES fA] i>0 NOT REAlOAp. 1620 2869584 7 LB 1629.5 A3 A35 1946 gr.10-12 bull.6 CURR HIST mmi No. -A ..^<r:■:A\ Programme of Studies For The High School BULLETIN 6 Prescribed Courses ... IN ... FRENCH 1,2, 3 LATIN 1,2,3 GERMAN 1,2,3 The outlines contained in this Bulletin are authorized by the Department of Education and supersede all other outlines of these courses which have appeared previous to September 1, 1946. Iditional copies of this Bulletin may be had from the neral Office of the Department of Education at 10 cents per copy. EDMONTON: Printed by A. Shnitka, King's Printer. 1946 \'' \V.-. >- Ex LiBRIS Universitatis Albertensis :rs! UNlvERSiTY OF ALBERTA' English Teaching in Foreign Languages The teacher of Latin, French or German is in an ideal position to apply the principles of language to English. As early as 1646 Sir Thomas Browne detected a pronounced trend in favor of learning Latin to understand English. While this is a round- about method of learning English, not encouraged in these courses of studies, nevertheless the study of any foreign language indubitably makes English grammar much easier to understand. The correlation betv^een the foreign language and the mother tongue can be happily achieved by keeping in mind the following principles, whether the language to be learned be Latin, French or German: (1) In teaching vocabulary it is safe to assume that beginners have no knowledge whatever of grammar or syntax. Ex- plain simply and briefly the difference between subject, object, direct and indirect object, the parts of the sentence, the parts of speech. Obviously it is folly to talk about direct and indirect object in French if the student does not know these cases when he meets them in English. (2) Whenever a grammatical term is used be sure all mem- bers of the class know its meaning. Do not take it for granted, for example, that everyone knows what is meant by the possessive case. Before teaching the French for "the children's oranges" take a moment or two to indi- cate the case in English of the two nouns. (2) In most languages the verb is the backbone of the lan- guage. The tense forms will undoubtedly cause much trouble unless care is taken to clarify the haze that covers such (to the teacher) simple terms as present perfect, pluperfect, and future. If a student writes correctly the future of audio in Latin, or venir in French, it must not be taken for granted that he knows the English meaning of these forms. (4) Idioms differ from language to language, and should not be translated literally. It is a good teaching device, how- ever, to take a look at the literal meaning of a foreign idiom, — with a warning that this is merely to help fix it in the mind. Whenever a thought is expressed in two languages, it should be in good idiomatic form, finally, in both languages. (5) After a student has spent three years or more in studying a foreign language, much of what he has learned will have faded from his mind, but much too will survive. The dis- cerning teacher will see to it that one of the surviving values will be an enhanced respect for, and knowledge of correct and forceful English. 4 FRENCH There are two extreme points of view with regard to objec- tives and aims in teaching modern languages, particularly French. On the one hand there is the school of thought which holds that the development of conversational ability is the im- portant objective. On the other hand some claim that the de- velopment of reading and writing skills is the main legitimate objective. In Alberta there are, unfortunately, too many teach- ers adhering to the latter viewpoint, whether by choice or cir- cumstance. In the long run the student of French wishes, if he is a normal person, to understand the language when he hears it spoken ; he will wish, in addition, to speak it himself, to read it, and to write it. If, during the learning period, he has had ex- periences through the fourfold media of hearing, speaking, read- ing and writing French he will have had an interesting and most likely a profitable time in his French classes. The advocates of the Direct Method are, in the main, per- sons who speak French with some facility. In England, for ex- ample, language teaching is done by speaking the language taught. All teachers of French are encouraged to spend one year in France. The advocates of the Reading Method believe that a student who is taught from the first to read the language will have more to show for his work after two or three years. In Al- berta, under conditions as they are in the average class-room, with teachers differing greatly in linguistic skill and training, it has been decided that the best policy is one of steering a course between the Direct Method on the one hand, and the Reading Method on the other. Accordingly the basic text for the first two years is one which can be used to advantage by the exponents of either method. Teachers who have had little or no training in pronunciation are earnestly urged to become familiar with the phonetic system of pronunciation which is explained simply on pages one to sixteen. In a French class taught by such a teacher it would be well for both teacher and class to defer any teaching or study of French until this preliminary chapter is thoroughly mastered by teacher and students. Subsequently the pronuncia- tion of all new words encountered should be practiced carefully, following the cues given in brackets in the vocabularies. This applies to verb forms, to useful expressions, and to all places in the prescribed text where the correct pronunciation is indicated in phonetics. After three years of high school French every stu- dent should have acquired a reasonable facility in simple spoken French, and, at the same time, reasonable skill in reading French. These objectives need not conflict with each other; in fact there is evidence to indicate that progress in learning to speak acceler- ates progress in learning to read, and vice versa. Recognizing the fact that a significant number of teachers in Alberta have taken special courses in French at Banff, Montreal, and Paris, two alternative texts are prescribed for French 1 and 2, either of which may be used by specially qualified teachers. The words "specially qualified" mean "able to converse rather fluently in French." The approval of the Department must be given before these texts are used. It should be noted that the Roux text, the basic text in grammar for French 1 and 2, pro- vides abundant material for oral drill by means of the question- naires, the series of actions, the classroom expressions, the French grammatical terms, the dictees. All teachers are ex- pected to use this material in its entirety. At the end of the third year of high school French, the stu- dents sit for an external written examination administered by the High School and University Matriculation Examinations Board. This will be an examination uniform for all students whether taught by the Direct Method or by the Reading Method. Oral tests have not yet been devised which are as reliable as writ- ten tests; nevertheless questions testing knowledge of French pronunciation are valid and can be expected on the final paper. It is expected that in every school the development of oral and aural skills will go forward along with development of reading and writing skills. The Department of Education has modern- ized the written examination at the end of grade twelve. This has been made more reliable by the introduction of more ques- tions of the objective type. There is greater emphasis than for- merly on **sight" passages. There are still questions, of course, devoted to vocabulary, verb forms and idioms necessary for con- versational use or reading comprehension. Within the limits imposed by a written type of examination an effort has been made to include questions which cannot be answered by those who have little knowledge of French pronunciation and little conversational facility. It is felt that the new type examination measures with a high degree of accuracy general language power in French. FRENCH 1 Textbook: — Roux: Premier Cours cle Frangais (Macmillan Co.). Lessons 1-25, including review exercises. On securing the approval of the Department specially quali- fied teachers may use instead of the Roux text either of the fol- lowing : (a) ^Cours Elementaire de Frangais by Travis and Wilson (Clarke, Irwin and Co.) Chapters 1-23 inclusive. (h)^First Year French by O'Brien and Lafrance (Ginn and Co.). "teachers' Reference: — A Teacher's Manual and Key to accom- pany Premier Cours de Frangais. Grammar : — A study of the principal parts, and the future, im- perfect, past definite, present indicative, imperative, and past indefinite tenses of the following verbs for recognition pur- poses: donner, finir, repondre, avoir, etre, commencer, ecrire, savoir, aller, faire, prendre, dire, voir, pouvoir, traduire, mettre. It is suggested that suitable exercises in the text be reviewed in the above tenses. Reading: — Conies Dramatiques, by Hills and Dondo (Copp Clark) . Any 12 selections will be an acceptable minimum for intensive reading, and teachers should encourage students to read as much more as possible. FRENCH 2 Textbook: — Roux: Premier Cours de Frangais (Macmillan Co.). The entire text is prescribed. On securing the approval of the Department specially quali- fied teachers may use instead of the Roux text either of the fol- lowing : (a) Cours Elementaire de Frangais by Travis and Wilson (Clarke, Irwin and Co.) . The entire text is to be covered. (b) Second Year French by O'Brien and Lafrance (Ginn and Co.). v^Teachers' Reference: — A Teacher's Manual to accompany Pre- mier Cours de Frangais. Verbs :— The sixteen verbs covered in the French 1 course shall be studied for mastery, and the following shall be studied for recognition : hoire, vouloir, venir, lire, devoir, connaitre, ouvrir, croire, partir, s'asseoir, envoyer, falloir, mener. All the above verbs shall be learned in the following tenses — the future, past indefinite, imperative, imperfect indicative, pre- sent subjunctive, and conditional forms. Reading: — (For the academic year 1946-1947) : Ford and Hicks ^ Elementary New French Reader. (Dent) . Selections III, IV, V, and VI will be an acceptable minimum, including the Com- prehension questions on pages 132 to 137. A new reader for 1947-1948 is in course of preparation, for Alberta high schools. Easy passages for sight translation may be chosen from selec- tions I and II in the Ford and Hicks Elementary New French Reader. FRENCH 3 I textbook: — Cours Moyen de Frangais, Part 1 by E. B. Travis and J. E. Wilson. This book contains, within the scope of the vocabulary furnished, exercises in fundamental language con- structions and in continuous prose and free composition. Gra- mophone records are available for some of the material in the textbook. Teachers should direct their enquiries about records to Clarke, Irwin and Co., 480 University Ave., Toronto. iReading: — Sans Famille: Hector Malot (Edited by A. L. Cru: J. C.Winston Co.). A second reading text is under preparation and will be pre- ^ scribed for the year 1947-1948 and in alternate years there- after. Reference Books For French Teachers *<1. First Year of French (O'Brien & Lafrance) and Second ^^ Year of French (for French 2 and 3). These are published by Ginn and Co., Boston and New York. They will be found useful for students studying by the Direct Method, and by teachers who wish to improve their pronunciation and con- versational facility. 2. Revised Elementary French Grammar (Fraser, Squair, and Parker) . This is published by D. C. Heath & Co., Boston. It is a good reference for teachers who wish to have infor- mation on conversational points of grammar and French idioms. 3. La Douce France (Theodore Huebner) published by Henry Holt and Co., New York, and handled in Canada by Clarke, Irwin & Co. This is a book on French Civilization, being an introduction to France and its people. It is written in English. 4. English and English-French Dictionary : Wesseley. 5. Phonetics — Manuel pratique de prononciation et de Lectures Frangaises (L.Bascau). This book is published by J. M. Dent & Sons. It is recommended for those teachers who are anxious to improve their pronunciation by better under- standing of the phonetic system. The above references may be ordered from the School Book Branch, Edmonton. Supplementary Materials A list of topics and texts has been approved as supple- mentary material for French 1, 2 and 3, to be used, particularly but not exclusively, by schools having large enrolments of French- speaking pupils. Teachers desiring to use such material should write to the Director of Curriculum for the list and for permis- sion to use it. Except in schools where such permission is granted only the regularly-authorized texts may be used. LATIN It should not be assumed that for all students taking instruc- tion in Latin the same objectives will be realized. Students differ greatly in their abilities, attitudes and personal qualities. It is to be expected that in any class of high school students who are studying Latin there will be found some who have a special apti- tude for the study of languages. A large number, however, per- haps the majority indeed, will be taking Latin in order to meet the entrance requirements of certain institutions for higher vocational or academic training. Many who profess to be study- ing Latin merely to meet matriculation requirements will never pass the threshold of a university. The question arises, "Has the study of Latin any intrinsic value ; can it be defended as a high school subject well worthwhile in its own right?" The great con- tribution of Latin to the English language supplies the affirma- tive answer to this question. A student who has taken only one year of Latin should, in return for his labor, have a much en- riched vocabulary ; he should have acquired valuable information about prefixes, suffixes, loaned words, phonetic changes, deriva- tions, Latin phrases, abbreviations, and quotations. He should know the motto of the Provincial University, and be able to find his way through the occasional classical references appearing in the editorial columns of papers and magazines- By the end of his second year he should be reading Latin with increasing con- 8 fidence and certainty, and his studies in the subject should con- tribute measurably to his ability to read and write correct English. Students enrolling in Latin courses must realize very early in the year, possibly as early as the first week, that in this sub- ject there is no royal road to learning, that they are condemned by the nature of the subject to "scorn delights and live laborious days.'' No one can learn Latin by merely listening to the teacher ; intense study is constantly required. No amount of drill on voca- bulary can replace the memorization of the words, their gender and genitive forms if they are nouns, their principal parts and conjugation if they are verbs. Students who are unable or un- willing to put forth the initial effort on vocabulary mastery will never become proficient in language study. A reasonable mas- tery of verb-forms, grammatical constructions and fundamental vocabulary is a sine qua non, without which no one should at- tempt the second or third year units. Without question, a reading knowledge of Latin is an im- portant objective. In the second year two periods a week should be devoted to reading the prescribed authors, including some study of idioms and grammatical principles illustrated in the passages studied. By the middle of the third year students, in addition to spending two periods a week on prescribed selections for reading, should have considerable practice in reading pass- ages which they have not seen before. In studying the prescribed authors the class should pay some attention to matter as well as form, and learn from the passages themselves something of the history and culture of the ancient world, the greatness of Rome, and the spread of the Latin culture and tongue westward. LATIN 1 The course follows the prescribed textbook. The selections about Marcus and Virginia should be read carefully throughout the year, as far as time permits. Textbook: — Thompson, Tracy & Dugit: Essential Latin, pages 1-250 (Clarke, Irwin & Company). LATIN 2 Textbooks: — Grammar: Thompson, Tracy & Dugit; Essential Latin (Clarke, Irwin & Company). Reading: Bonney & Niddrie: Latin Prose & Poetry (Ginn & Co.). Teachers' Reference : Bonney & Niddrie : Latin Prose Compo- sition (Ginn & Co.). (This is the Grade XII text.) Before commencing the second year work in grammar a thorough review of Latin 1 should be undertaken, for a period of from two to six weeks, depending on the proficiency of the class. All the textbook constitutes the course, with the exception of lesson 81 which may be omitted, and lessons 88 to the end of the book, which are optional. Marcus and Virginia selections are not required, but Reading is, viz. : Reading There is a two-year cycle. Cycle one is prescribed for the academic year 1946-47 and every alternate year thereafter. The reading should be commenced soon after the opening of school, and should be taken twice a week concurrently with grammar. Cycle One (1946-47 and alternate years) From Part 1 of the text read the following : Caesar — all selections except number VII. Eutropius — all selections. Phaedrus — all selections. and From Part 2 of the text read : Martial — all selections. Cycle Two (1947-48 and alternate years) From Part 1 of the text read : Gellius — all selections. Nepos — all selections. Ovid — selections II, III, IV. LATIN 3 Textbooks: — Grammar: Thompson, Tracy & Dugit: Essential Latin (Clarke, Irwin & Co.). Teachers' Reference: Bennett: Latin Grammar (Allyn & Bacon). Reading: Bonney & Niddrie: Latin Prose & Poetry (Ginn & Co.). Prose Composition : Bonney & Niddrie : Latin Prose Composi- tion (Ginn & Co.). Suitable material may be chosen from this book to supplement the textbook in Grammar. Reading There is a two-year cycle. Cycle One is prescribed for the academic year 1946-47 and every alternate year thereafter. The reading should begin shortly after the opening of school in the Fall, and should be taken twice a week concurrently with grammar. Cycle One (1946-47 and alternate years) From Part 1 of the text read : Vergil— Selections III, IV, VI, VII, IX, XV and From Part II of the text read : Cicero — ^Selections I, II, III and Letter III. Livy — Selections I to VII inclusive. 10 Pliny— Letters I, II, III, IV, VI. Catullus — Selections II to VII inclusive. Cycle Two (1947-48 and alternate years) From Part II of the text read : Cicero — Selections 4, 5, 6, and Letters 6, 7, 8. Livy — Selections IX to XV inclusive. Pliny— Letters VII, VIII, XI, XIII. Vergil — Georgics III, V ; Aeneid selections I, III, IV, V. Horace — Odes I to IX inclusive. N.B. — Teachers of Latin 3 should note that the whole textbook in Grammar is prescribed as the course for grade twelve and for students' reference. The Prose Composition should be taken at least once a week throughout the year. GERMAN The course in German language outlined below is, like all high school courses in foreign languages, designed for the stu- dent who is approaching the language as a newcomer, knowing little or nothing about it. For such students the three-year course is adequate in content and pace. Many, possibly the ma- jority of the students wishing to study German in high school, come from communities where German is spoken and are there- fore familiar with the language. For these students the course must be amplified and enriched by introducing material from the supplementary references. The foregoing factors will determine the classroom pro- cedure and method of instruction. A class of students with a knowledge of oral German presents the ideal situation for the use of the direct method of instruction. For a class of beginners a modified form of the direct method may be used which will intro- duce the language to the pupils with emphasis on language ex- perience, vocabulary building and pronunciation rather than on translation and rules of grammar. The language course is no longer merely a preparation for a written examination at the end of the year. Classroom instruction is no longer dominated by the burning question, What is required for the examination? Effici- ent, intelligent and interesting classroom practice will give the pupil a productive as well as a receptive command of the lan- guage, enabling him not only to understand the language by ac- quiring a reasonable mastery of verb forms, grammatical con- structions, and fundamental vocabulary which a written exam- ination can test, but also the power to express himself simply and correctly in the living language. Rules of grammar should grow out of his early experiences with the language and not by the par- rot-like repetition of unrelated formulas such as ''durch," "filr," "gegen," "ohne," "un" and "wider." Reading in a foreign lan- guage must not be treated as an exercise in translation. The student should be trained to read in order to understand the con- tent of what he is reading with a minimum of translation. 11 A language cannot be dissociated from its native land and from its people. It is a key which will open many treasures for the student, a new literature and a closer and more intimate ac- quaintance with the daily life, manners, customs, traditions and culture of a people. The resultant breadth of understanding was never more important or more necessary than it is today, for the future of the world depends upon international relations. The Germany described in the textbook is the lovely country that was Germany before 1933. Today her beautiful towns and cities lie in ruins, her people are hungry and her land in bondage. The songs, once dear to the hearts of the Germans are seldom heard. These are the rewards of Nazism. Understanding and tolerance are now needed to overcome the distrust and hatred which the recent war has stirred up, and to bring about world peace. The language teacher has a great opportunity to stimulate and de- velop that breadth of vision and knowledge which our youth must possess in order to reconstruct our war-torn world on a solid foundation of peace and good-will. German 1 . ^ Textbook: — Chiles and Wiehr: First Book in German (Ginn & Co.). Lessons 1-15, including review exercises. ^^Reading: — Hagboldt: Filnf beriihmte Marchen (Copp Clark Co.). Hagboldt: Eulenspiegel und MUnchhausen (Copp Clark Co.). Occasional practice in German script should be given. German 2. ^ Textbook: — Chiles and Wiehr: First Book in German (Ginn & Co.) . Lessons 16 to the end. Reading: — Bauer: Das Geheimniss des Jann^hofs (Heffer & "^ Sons). Kiistner: Emil und die Detective (Bell & Sons). Easy passages for sight translation. German 3. Textbooks: — Grammar and Composition: Chiles and Wiehr: ^ First Book in German (Ginn & Co.). The whole book will be used for review and for reference. ^^Reading: — Hinz: Das Geheimnisvolle Dorf (Copp, Clark Co.)- V- Storm: Immensee (Macmillan Co.). /JKiistner: Die Verschivundene Miniatur (Copp, Clark Co.).